Peer reviewed papers


[126] Julien Bec, Deborah Vela, Jennifer E. Phipps, Michael Agung, Jakob Unger, Kenneth B. Margulies, Jeffrey A. Southard, L. Maximilian Buja, Laura Marcu. Label-Free Visualization and Quantification of Biochemical Markers of Atherosclerotic Plaque Progression Using Intravascular Fluorescence Lifetime JACC: Cardiovascular Imaging (2020)

[125] Julien Bec, Tanveer Ahmed Shaik, Christoph Krafft, Thomas W Bocklitz, Alba Alfonso-Garcia, Kenneth B Margulies, Jürgen Popp, Laura Marcu. Investigating Origins of FLIm Contrast in Atherosclerotic Lesions Using Combined FLIm-Raman Spectroscopy Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine (2020)

[124] Mark Marsden, Brent W Weyers, Julien Bec, Tianchen Sun, Regina F Gandour-Edwards, Andrew C Birkeland, Marianne Abouyared, Arnaud F Bewley, D Gregory Farwell, Laura Marcu. Intraoperative Margin Assessment in Oral and Oropharyngeal Cancer using Label-free Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging and Machine Learning  IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering (2020) 

[123] Mark Marsden, Takanori Fukazawa, Yu-Cheng Deng, Brent W Weyers, Julien Bec, D Gregory Farwell, Laura Marcu. FLImBrush: dynamic visualization of intraoperative free-hand fiber-based fluorescence lifetime imaging Biomedical Optics Express (2020)

[122] Nelda Vazquez-Portalatin, Alba Alfonso-Garcia, Julie C. Liu, Laura Marcu, Alyssa Panitch. Physical, Biomechanical, and Optical Characterization of Collagen and Elastin Blend Hydrogels  Annals of Biomedical Engineering (2020)

[121] Tanveer Ahmed Shaik, Alba Alfonso-García, Xiangnan Zhou, Katherine M Arnold, Anne K Haudenschild, Christoph Krafft, Leigh G Griffiths, Jürgen Popp, Laura Marcu. FLIm-Guided Raman Imaging to Study Cross-Linking and Calcification of Bovine Pericardium. Analytical chemistry (2020)

[120] Tanveer Ahmed Shaik, Alba Alfonso-Garcia, Martin Richter, Florian Korinth, Christoph Krafft, Laura Marcu, Jürgen Popp. FLIm and Raman Spectroscopy for Investigating Biochemical Changes of Bovine Pericardium upon Genipin Cross-Linking (2020)  Molecules

[119] Jakob Unger, Christoph Hebisch, Jennifer E. Phipps, João L. Lagarto, Hanna Kim, Morgan A. Darrow, Richard J. Bold, and Laura Marcu. Real-time diagnosis and visualization of tumor margins in excised breast specimens using fluorescence lifetime imaging and machine learning (2020).


[118] Brent W. Weyers Mark Marsden Tianchen Sun Julien Bec Arnaud F. Bewley Regina F. Gandour‐Edwards Michael G. Moore D. Gregory Farwell Laura Marcu. Fluorescence lifetime imaging for intraoperative cancer delineation in transoral robotic surgery. Translational Biophotonics (2019).

[117] Shklover, J., McMasters, J., Alfonso-Garcia, A., Higuita, M., Panitch, A., Marcu, L., Griffiths, L. Bovine pericardial extracellular matrix niche modulates human aortic endothelial cell phenotype and function Scientific Reports (2019).

[116] Cai Li, Alba Alfonso-Garcia, James McMasters, Julien Bec, Brent Weyers, Lauren Uyesaka, Leigh Griffiths, Alyssa Panitch and Laura Marcu. Simultaneous intraluminal imaging of tissue autofluorescence and eGFP-labeled cells in engineered vascular grafts inside a bioreactor. Methods and Applications in Fluorescence (2019).

[115] Gorpas, J. Phipps, J. Bec, D. Ma, S. Dochow, D. Yankelevich, J. Sorger, J. Popp, A. Bewley, R. Gandour-Edwards, L. Marcu, and D. G. Farwell, “Autofluorescence lifetime augmented reality as a means for real-time robotic surgery guidance in human patients,” Scientific Reports 9, 1187 (2019).

[114] Sherlock, B., Li, C., Zhou, X., Alfonso-Garcia, A., Bec, J., Yankelevich, D., Marcu, L. Multiscale, multispectral fluorescence lifetime imaging using a double-clad fiber Optics Letters 44(9), 2302 (2019).

[113] Alfonso-Garcia, A., Li, C., Bec, J., Yankelevich, D., Marcu, L., Sherlock, B. Fiber-based platform for synchronous imaging of endogenous and exogenous fluorescence of biological tissue Optics Letters 44(13), 3350 (2019).

[112] Alfonso‐Garcia, A., Bec, J., Sridharan, S., Hartl, B., Unger, J., Bobinski, M., Lechpammer, M., Girgis, F., Boggan, J., Marcu, L. Real‐time augmented reality for delineation of surgical margins during neurosurgery using autofluorescence lifetime contrast Journal of Biophotonics (2019).

[111] Haudenschild AK, Sherlock BE, Zhou X, Hu JC, Leach JK, Marcu L, Athanasiou KA. Non-destructive detection of matrix stabilization correlates with enhanced mechanical properties of self-assembled articular cartilage. J Tissue Eng Regen Med. doi: 10.1002/term.2824. [Epub ahead of print] PMID:30770656 (2019).


[110] B. Hartl, Htet S. W. Ma, Shamira Sridharan, Katherine S. Hansen, Michael S. Kent, Fredric Gorin, Ruben C. Fragoso, Laura Marcu. Label-free fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy detects radiation-induced necrotic changes in live brain in real-time. Biomed Opt Express. 1; 9(8): 3559–3580 (2018).

[109] L. Lagarto, J. E. Phipps, L. Faller, D. Ma, J. Unger, J. Bec, S. Griffey, J. Sorger, D. G. Farwell, and L. Marcu, “Electrocautery effects on fluorescence lifetime measurements: An in vivo study in the oral cavity,” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology 185, 90–99 (2018).

[108] Zhou X, Haudenschild AK, Sherlock BE, Hu JC, Leach JK, Athanasiou KA, Marcu L.
Detection of glycosaminoglycan loss in articular cartilage by fluorescence lifetime imaging.J Biomed Opt. 2018 Dec;23(12):1-8. doi: 10.1117/1.JBO.23.12.126002.  PMID:30578627

[107] A. K. Haudenschild, B.E. Sherlock, X. Zhou, J.C. Hu, J.K. Leach, L. Marcu, K.A. Athanasiou, “Nondestructive fluorescence lifetime imaging and spectroscopy detect cartilage matrix depletion and correlate with mechanical properties” European Cells and Materials Vol. 36 2018 (pages 30-43)

[106] Benjamin E. Sherlock, Jenna N. Harvestine, Debika Mitra, Anne Haudenschild, Jerry Hu, Kyriacos A. Athanasiou, J. Kent Leach, Laura Marcu, “Nondestructive assessment of collagen hydrogel cross-linking using time-resolved autofluorescence imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(3) 036004 (6 March 2018)

[105] Alba Alfonso-Garcia, Anne K. Haudenschild, and Laura Marcu, “Label-free assessment of carotid artery biochemical composition using fiber-based fluorescence lifetime imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9, 4064-4076 (2018)

[104] Li, C., Shklover, J., Parvizi, M., Sherlock, B., Alfonso-Garcia, A., Haudenschild, A., Griffiths, L.G., Marcu, L. “Label-Free Assessment of Collagenase Digestion on Bovine Pericardium Properties by Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging” Ann Biomed Eng (2018).

[103] Alfonso‐Garcia A, Shklover J, Sherlock BE, Panitch A, Griffiths LG, Marcu L. “Fiber‐based fluorescence lifetime imaging of recellularization processes on vascular tissue constructs.” J. Biophotonics. 2018;11:e201700391

[102] Unger, J, Sun, T, Chen, YL, Phipps, JE, Bold, RJ, Darrow, MA, Ma, KL, Marcu, L. “Method for accurate registration of tissue autofluorescence imaging data with corresponding histology: a means for enhanced tumor margin assessment”. J. Biomedical Opt. 2018, 23(1): 015001


[101] Boppart, SA, Brown, JQ, Farah, CS, Kho, E, Marcu, L, Saunders, CM, Sterenborg, HJCM., Label-free optical imaging technologies for rapid translation and use during intraoperative surgical and tumor margin assessment”J Biomedical Opt. 2017 Dec;23(2):1-10.

[100] Marcu, L, Boppart, SA, Hutchinson, MR, Popp, J, Wilson, BC., Biophotonics: the big picture“, J. of Biomedical Optics, 23(2), 021103 (2017)

[99] Phipps, JE, Gorpas, D, Unger, J, Darrow, M, Bold, RJ, Marcu, L., “Automated detection of breast cancer in resected specimens with fluorescence lifetime imaging“, Phys Med Biol. 2017 Dec 14;63(1):015003

[96] Sherlock BE, Phipps JE, Bec J, Marcu L., “Simultaneous, label-free, multispectral fluorescence lifetime imaging and optical coherence tomography using a double-clad fiber.”, Opt Lett. 2017 Oct 1;42(19):3753-3756.

[97] Mitra D, Fatakdawala H, Nguyen-Truong M, Creecy A, Nyman J, Marcu L, Leach JK., “Detection of Pentosidine Cross-Links in Cell-Secreted Decellularized Matrices Using Time Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy., ACS Biomater Sci Eng. 2017 Sep 11;3(9):1944-1954.

[96] Bec J, Phipps JE, Gorpas D, Ma D, Fatakdawala H, Margulies KB, Southard JA, Marcu L., “In vivo label-free structural and biochemical imaging of coronary arteries using an integrated ultrasound and multispectral fluorescence lifetime catheter system.”Sci Rep. 2017 Aug 21;7(1):8960.

[95] Fereidouni F, Gorpas D, Ma D, Fatakdawala H, Marcu L., “Rapid fluorescence lifetime estimation with modified phasor approach and Laguerre deconvolution: a comparative study.”Methods Appl Fluoresc. 2017 Sep 1;5(3):035003.

[94] Marcu, L, Hillman, EMC, “In vivo Optical Imaging / Intravital Microscopy“.,  Biophotonics. 2017 Jun;10(6-7):760-761

[93] Bourantas, CV, Jaffer, FA, Gijsen, FJ, van Soest, G, Madden, SP, Courtney, BK, Fard, AM, Tenekecioglu, E, Zeng, Y, van der Steen, AFW, Emelianov, S, Muller, J, Stone, PH, Marcu, L, Tearney, GJ, Serruys, PW, “Hybrid intravascular imaging: recent advances, technical considerations, and current applications in the study of plaque pathophysiology“, Eur Heart J. 2017 Feb 7;38(6):400-412

[92] Ma D, Liu J, Qi J, Marcu L., “Reply to Comment: ‘A novel method for fast and robust estimation of fluorescence decay dynamics using constrained least-square deconvolution with Laguerre expansion’.”Phys Med Biol. 2017 Feb 21;62(4):1637-1641.

[91] B.A. Hartl, H.S.W. Ma, K.S. Hansen, J. Perks, M.S. Kent, R.C. Fragoso, L. Marcu , “The effect of radiation dose on the onset and progression of radiation-induced brain necrosis in the rat model”, Int. J. Rad. Biol. (2017).


[90] D. Mitra, H. Fatakdawala, M. Nguyen-Truong, A. Creecy, J.S. Nyman, L. Marcu, K. Leach, “Detection of Pentosidine Crosslinks in Cell-Secreted Decellularized Matrices using Time Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy”, ACS Biomater Sci Eng. (2016).

[89] C.V. Bourantas, F.A. Jaffer, F.J. Gijsen, G. van Soest, S.P. Madden, B.K. Courtney, A.M. Fard, E. Tenekecioglu, Y. Zeng, A.F.W. van der Steen, S. Emelianov, J. Muller, P.H. Stone, L. Marcu, G.J. Tearney, P.W. Serruys, “Hybrid intravascular imaging: recent advances, technical considerations, and current applications in the study of plaque pathophysiology”, Eur Heart J. (2016).

[88] S. Dochow, H. Fatakdawala, J.E. Phipps, D. Ma, T. Bocklitz, M. Schmitt, J.W. Bishop, K.B. Margulies, L. Marcu, J. Popp, “Comparing Raman and fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy from human atherosclerotic lesions using a bimodal probe”,  J Biophoton. (2016).

[87] D. Gorpas, D. Ma, J. Bec, D. Yankelevich, L. Marcu, “Real-time visualization of tissue surface biochemical features derived from fluorescence lifetime measurements”, IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging . (2016).

[86] B.A. Hartl, H. Hirschberg, L. Marcu, S.R. Cherry, “Activating Photodynamic Therapy in vitro with Cerenkov Radiation Generated from Yttrium-90”, J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. (2016).




[85] S. Dochow, D. Ma, I. Latka, T. Bocklitz, B. Hartl, J. Bec, H. Fatakdawala, E. Marple, K. Urmey, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, M. Schmitt, L .Marcu, J. Pop, “Combined fiber probe for fluorescence lifetime and Raman spectroscopy”, Anal Bioanal Chem. (2015).

[84] H. Fatakdawala, D. Gorpas, J.W. Bishop, J. Bec, D. Ma, J. A. Southard, K. Margulies, and L. Marcu, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging combined with conventional intravascular ultrasound for enhanced assessment of atherosclerotic plaques: An ex vivo study in human coronary arteries”, J. of Cardiovasc. Trans. Res. 1-11 (2015).

[83] D. Ma, J. Bec, D. Gorpas, D. Yankelevich, and L. Marcu, “Technique for real-time tissue characterization based on scanning multispectral fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy (ms-TRFS)”, Biomed. Opt. Express  6, 987-1002 (2015).

[82] B. A. Hartl, H. Hirschberg, L. Marcu, S. R. Cherry, “Characterizing low fluence thresholds for in vitro photodynamic therapy”, Biomedical Optics Express, 6(3), 770-779 (2015).

[81] D. Gorpas, H. Fatakdawala, J. Bec, D. Ma, D.R. Yankelevich, J. Qi, L. Marcu, “Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging and Intravascular Ultrasound: Co-registration Study using ex vivo Human Coronaries”, Medical Imaging, IEEE Transactions on , vol.34, no.1, pp.156,166, (2015) 




[80] H. Fatakdawala, L.G. Griffiths, S. Humphrey, L. Marcu, “Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and ultrasound backscatter microscopy for nondestructive evaluation of vascular grafts”, J. Biomed. Opt., 19(8), 080503 (2014).

[79] N. Ghata ,  R. Aldredge,  J. Bec,  L. Marcu, “Computational analysis of the effectiveness of blood flushing with saline injection from an intravascular diagnostic catheter”. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering. 30(11):1278-93 (2014).

[78] D. Ma,  J. Bec, D. Yankelevich, D. Gorpas, H. Fatakdawala, L. Marcu, “Rotational multispectral fluorescence lifetime imaging and intravascular ultrasound: bimodal system for intravascular applications”. J. Biomed. Opt. 0001;19(6):066004 (2014). 

[77] D. Yankelevich, D. Ma, J. Liu, Y. Sun, Y. Sun, J. Bec, D. S. Elson, L. Marcu, “Design and evaluation of a device for fast multispectral time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging”  Review of Scientific Instruments, 85, 034303 (2014).

[76] D. Yankelevich, J. González, R. Cudney, L. Ríos, and L. Marcu, “Development of a new pulsed source for photoacoustic imaging based on aperiodically poled lithium niobate,” Biomed. Opt. Express  5, 468-473 (2014).




[75] M. Lam, A. J. Chaudhari, Y. Sun, F. Zhou, A. Dobbie, R. F. Gandour-Edwards, S. P. Tinling, D. G. Farwell, W. L. Monsky, K. K. Shung, and L. Marcu, “Ultrasound Backscatter Microscopy for Imaging of Oral Carcinoma,” Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine 32, 1789-1797 (2013).

[74] H. Fatakdawala, S. Poti, F. Zhou, Y. Sun, J. Bec, J. Liu, D. Yankelevich, S. Tinling, R. Gandour-Edwards, D. Farwell, and L. Marcu, “Multimodal in vivo imaging of oral cancer using fluorescence lifetime, photoacoustic and ultrasound techniques,” Biomed. Opt. Express  4, 1724-1741 (2013).

[73] Y. Sun, J. E. Phipps, J. Meier, N. Hatami, B. Poirier, D. S. Elson, D. G. Farwell, and L. Marcu, “Endoscopic Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging for In Vivo Intraoperative Diagnosis of Oral Carcinoma,” Microscopy and Microanalysis 19, 791-798 (2013).

[72] J. Bec, D. Ma, D. Yankelevich, J. Liu, W. Ferrier, J. Southard, L. Marcu. “Multispectral fluorescence lifetime imaging system for intravascular diagnostics with ultrasound guidance: in vivo validation in swine arteries.” Journal of Biophotonics, 1864-0648, DOI: 10.1002/jbio.201200220, (2013).




[71] Y. Sun, H. Xie, J. Liu, M. Lam, A. J. Chaudhari, F. Zhou, J. Bec, D. R. Yankelevich, A. Dobbie, S. L. Tinling, R. F. Gandour-Edwards, W. L. Monsky, D. Gregory Farwell and L. Marcu, “In vivo validation of a bimodal technique combining time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and ultrasonic backscatter microscopy for diagnosis of oral carcinoma,” Journal of Biomedical Optics 17(11), 116003-116003 (2012).

[70] J. Bec, H. Xie, D. R. Yankelevich, F. Zhou, Y. Sun, N. Ghata, R. Aldredge and L. Marcu, “Design, construction, and validation of a rotary multifunctional intravascular diagnostic catheter combining multispectral fluorescence lifetime imaging and intravascular ultrasound,” Journal of Biomedical Optics 17(10), 106012-106011 (2012).

[69] J. E. Phipps, Y. Sun, M. C. Fishbein and L. Marcu, “A fluorescence lifetime imaging classification method to investigate the collagen to lipid ratio in fibrous caps of atherosclerotic plaque,” Lasers in Surgery and Medicine 44(7), 564-571 (2012).

[68] L. Marcu, “Fluorescence Lifetime Techniques in Medical Applications,” Annals of Biomedical Engineering 40(2), 304-331 (2012).

[67] L. Marcu and B. A. Hartl, “Fluorescence Lifetime Spectroscopy and Imaging in Neurosurgery,” Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of 18(4), 1465-1477 (2012).

[66] H. Xie, J. Bec, J. Liu, Y. Sun, M. Lam, D. Yankelevich, and L. Marcu, “Multispectral scanning time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS) technique for intravascular diagnosis,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 1521-1533 (2012).

[65] J. Liu, Y. Sun, J. Qi and L. Marcu. “A novel method for fast and robust estimation of fluorescence decay dynamics using constrained least-squares deconvolution with Laguerre expansion” Physics in Medicine and Biology, 57 (4), 2012. 

[64] F. Knorr, D. R. Yankelevich, J. Liu, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu and L. Marcu, “Two-photon excited fluorescence lifetime measurements through a double-clad photonic crystal fiber for tissue micro-endoscopy,” Journal of Biophotonics 5(1), 14-19 (2012).

[63] Y. Sun, D. Responte, H. Xie, J. Liu, H. Fatakdawala, J. Hu, K.A. Athanasiou, and L. Marcu. “Nondestructive Evaluation of Tissue Engineered Articular Cartilage Using Time-Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Ultrasound Backscatter Microscopy” Tissue Engineering Part C: Methods. March 2012, 18(3): 215-226.




[62] J.E. Phipps, Y. Sun, R. Saroufeem, N. Hatami, M. C. Fishbein and L. Marcu, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging for the characterization of the biochemical composition of atherosclerotic plaques,” J Biomed Opt 16(9), 096018-096018 (2011).

[61] J.E. Phipps, N. Hatami, Z.S. Galis, J.D. Baker, M.C. Fishbein, and L. Marcu. “A Fluorescence Lifetime Spectroscopy Study of Matrix Metalloproteinases-2 and -9 in Human Atherosclerotic Plaque”, Journal of Biophotonics Vol. 4, No. 9, 650-658, 2011.

[60] Y. Sun, A. Chaudhari, M. Lam, H. Xie, D. Yankelevich, J. Phipps, J. Liu, M. Fishbein, J. Cannata, K. Shung, and L. Marcu, “Multimodal characterization of compositional, structural and functional features of human atherosclerotic plaques,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 2288-2298 (2011). (Link)

[59] B.Z. Fite, M. Decaris, Y.H. Sun, Y. Sun, A. Lam, C.K.L. Ho, J.K. Leach, L. Marcu. “Noninvasive Multimodal Evaluation of Bioengineered Cartilage Constructs Combining Time-Resolved Fluorescence and Ultrasound Imaging.” Tissue Eng Part C Methods, 17(4): 495-504, 2011. (Link) (PDF)

[58] Y.H. Sun, Y. Sun, D. Stephens, H. Xie, J. Phipps, R. Saroufeem, J. Southard, D.S. Elson, L. Marcu. “Dynamic tissue analysis using time- and wavelength-resolved spectroscopy for atherosclerosis diagnosis.” Optics Express, 19(5): 3890-901, 2011. (PDF)

[57] P.V. Butte, A.N. Mamelak, M. Nuno, S.I. Bannykh, K.L. Black, L. Marcu. “Fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy for guided therapy of brain tumors.” Neuroimage, 54 Suppl 1: S125-35, 2011. (PDF)




[56] Y.H. Sun, N. Hatami, M. Yee, D.S. Elson, F. Gorin, R.J. Schrot, L. Marcu. “Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy for brain tumor image-guided surgery.” J Biomed Opt. 2010 Sep-Oct; 15(5): 056022. (PDF)

[55] J.D. Meier, H. Xie, Y. Sun, N. Hatami, B. Poirier, L. Marcu, and D.G. Farwell, “Time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy as a diagnostic instrument in head and neck carcinoma,” Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 142(6): 838-844, 2010. (PDF)

[54] L. Marcu, “Fluorescence lifetime in cardiovascular diagnostics,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 011106-1-10, 2010. PMCID: PMC2847934. (PDF)

[53] J. Lo, P. Butte, Q. Fang, S.J. Chen, T. Papaioanou, E. Kim, M. Gundersen, and L. Marcu, “Multilayered MOEMS tunable spectrometer for fluorescence lifetime detection,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, 22(7): 468-488, 2010. (PDF)

[52] D.G. Farwell, J.D. Meier, J. Park, Y. Sun, H. Coffman, B. Poirier, J. Phipps, S. Tinling, D.J. Enepekides, and L. Marcu, “Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy as a diagnostic technique of oral carcinoma: validation in the hamster buccal pouch model,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 136(2): 126-33, 2010. (PDF)

[51] P.V. Butte, Q. Fang, J.A. Jo, W.H. Yong, B.K. Pikul, K.L. Black, and L. Marcu, “Intraoperative delineration of primary brain tumors using time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2): 027008, 2010. PMCID: PM20459282. (PDF)




[50] Y. H. Sun, J. Phipps, D. S. Elson, H. Stoy, S., S. Tinling, J. Meier, B. Poirier, F. S. Chuang, D. G. Farwell, and L. Marcu, Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy: In vivo application to diagnosis of oral carcinoma, Optics Letters, Volume 34, Issue 13, pp. 2081-2083, 2009. (PDF)

[49] D.N. Stephens, J. Park, Y. Sun, T. Papaioannou, and L. Marcu, Intraluminal fluorescence spectroscopy catheter with ultrasound guidance, Journal of Biomedical Optics, 14, 030505 (2009), DOI:10.1117/1.3146813. (PDF)

[48] Y. Sun, J. Park, D.N. Stephens, J.A. Jo, L. Sun, J.M. Cannata, R. M.G. Saroufeem, K.K. Shung, and L. Marcu, Development of a dual-modal tissue diagnostic system combining time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and ultrasonic backscatter microscopy, Review of Scientific Instruments, 80, 065104, 2009, DOI:10.1063/1.3142478. (PDF)

[47] J. Yan, Y. Sun, H. Zhu, L. Marcu, A. Revzin, Enzyme-containing hydrogel micropatterns serving a dual purpose of cell sequestration and metabolite detection, Biosensors and Bioelectronics, Volume 24, Issue 8, 2604-10, 2009. (PDF)

[46] J. Lo, S.J. Chen, Q. Fang, T. Papaioannou, E.S. Kim, M. Gundersen, L. Marcu, Performance of a diaphragmed microlens for a packaged microspectrometer, Sensors, 9(2), 859-868, 2009. (PDF)

[45] L. Marcu, J. A. Jo, Q. Fang, T. Papaioannou, T. Reil, J-H Qiao, J. D. Baker, J. A. Freischlag, M. C. Fishbein, Detection of Rupture-Prone Atherosclerotic Plaques by Time-Resolved Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy,Atherosclerosis, 2009. (PDF)




[44] V. Saxena, L. Marcu and G. Karunasiri. A novel noninvasive all optical technique to monitor physiology of an exercising muscle. Physics in Medicine and Biology, 53(21):6211-25, 2008. (PDF)

[43] Y. H. Sun, R. Liu, D. S. Elson, C. Hollars, J. A. Jo, J. Park, Y. Sun, and L. Marcu, Simultaneous time- and wavelength-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy for near real-time tissue diagnosis, Optics Letters, Vol. 33(6):630-632, 2008. (PDF)

[42] K-C. Liao, T. Hogen-Esch, F. J. Richmond, L. Marcu, W. Clifton, G. E. Loeb, Percutaneous fiber-optic sensor for chronic glucose monitoring in vivo.Biosensors and Bioelectronics 23:1458–1465, 2008. (PDF)




[41] J. Wang, W. H. Yong, Y. Sun, P. T. Vernier, H. P. Koeffler, M. A. Gundersen, L. Marcu. Receptor-targeted quantum dots: fluorescence probes for brain tumor diagnosis. Journal of Biomedical Optics 12(4):044021, 2007. (PDF)

[40] J. F. Lo, Q. Fang, L. Marcu, E. S. Kim, Wafer-level packaging of three-dimensional MOEMS device with lens diaphragm, Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, 2007. MEMS. IEEE 20th International Conference on 21-25 Jan. 2007 Pages:715 – 718. (PDF)

[39] D. S. Elson, J. A. Jo, L Marcu. Miniaturized side-viewing imaging probe for fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM): validation with fluorescence dyes, tissue structural proteins and tissue specimens. New Journal of Physics 9, 127, 2007. (PDF)

[38] E. B. Garon, D. Sawcer, David, P. T. Vernier, T. Tang, Y. Sun, L. Marcu, M. A. Gundersen, H. P. Koeffler, In vitro and in vivo evaluation and a case report of intense nanosecond pulsed electric field as a local therapy for human malignancies, International Journal of Cancer, 121: 675-82, 2007. (PDF)

[37] E. B. Garon, L. Marcu, Q. Luongc, O. Tcherniantchouk, G. M. Crooks, H. P. Koeffler, Quantum dot labeling and tracking of human leukemic, bone marrow and cord blood cells, Leukemia Research, 31, 643-651, 2007. 

[36] J.A. Jo, L. Marcu, Q. Fang Q, T. Papaioannou, J.H. Qiao, M.C. Fishbein, B. Beseth, A.H. Dorafshar, T. Reil, D. Baker, J. A. Freischlag, New methods for time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy data analysis based on the Laguerre expansion technique – Applications in tissue diagnosis, Methods of Information on Medicine 46(2): 206-211, 2007.  (PDF)



[35] J. A. Jo, Q. Fang, T. Papaioannou, J. Qiao, M. C.  Fishbein, B. Beseth, A. Dorafshar, T. Reil, D. Baker, J. Freischlag, K.K. Shung, L. Sun, L. Marcu. “Diagnosis of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and ultrasound imaging.” 28th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, New York City, New York. August 2006. pp:2663-2666. (PDF)

[34] W. H. Yong, P. V. Butte, Brian K. Pikul, J. A. Jo, K. L. Black, MD, L. Marcu, Distinction of Brain tissue, low grade and high grade glioma with time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, Frontiers in Biosciences, 11:1255-63, 2006. (PDF)

[33] Y. Sun, Y.-S Liu, P. T. Vernier, C.-H. Liang, S. Y. Chong, L. Marcu, and M. A. Gundersen, “Photostability and pH sensitivity of CdSe/ZnSe/ZnS quantum dots in living cells,”Nanotechnology 17:4469-476, 2006. (PDF)

[32] Y. Sun, P. T. Vernier, M. Behrend, J. Wang, M. A. Gundersen, L. Marcu. Fluorescence microscopy imaging of electroperturbation in mammalian cells. Journal of Biomedical Optics, Vol. 11(2): 024010-1 “024010-7, 2006. (PDF)

[31] J. A. Jo, Q. Fang, T. Papaioannou, J. Qiao, M. C. Fishbein, A. Dorafshar, T. Reil, D. Baker, J. Freischlag, L. Marcu, “Laguerre Based Method for Analysis of Time-Resolved Fluorescence Data: Application to In-Vivo Characterization and Diagnosis of Atherosclerotic Lesions,”Journal of Biomedical Optics, Vol. 11(2):021004-1 “021004-13, 2006. (PDF)

[30] L. Marcu, G.J. Tearney, K.W. Gregory, Cardiovascular photonics, Journal of Biomedical Optics 11 (2):021001, 2006(PDF)



[29] P. T. Vernier, S. Yinghua, J. Wang, M.M. Thu, E. Garon, M. Valderrabano, L. Marcu, H.P. Koeffler, M. A. Gundersen; Nanoelectropulse Intracellular Perturbation and Electropermeabilization Technology: Phospholipid Translocation, Calcium Bursts, Chromatin Rearrangement, Cardiomyocyte Activation, and Tumor Cell Sensitivity; The 27th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, September 2005; pp: 5850 – 5853. (PDF)

[28] J. A. Jo; Q. Fang, T. Papaioannou, J. H. Qiao, M.C. Fishbein, B. Beseth, A. H. Dorafshar, T. Reil, D. Baker, J. A. Freischlag, L. Marcu. Application of the Laguerre Deconvolution Method for Time-Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy to the Characterization of Atherosclerotic Plaques; The 27th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, September 2005; pp: 6559 – 6562. (PDF)

[27] P. V. Butte, B. K. Pikul, A. Hever, W. H. Yong, K. L. Black, L. Marcu, “Diagnosis of meningioma by time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, “Journal of Biomedical Optics. 10(6):064026-1 – 064026-9, 2005. (PDF)

[26] J. A. Jo, Q. Fang, T. Papaioannou, L. Marcu, “Ultra-fast method for the analysis of fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy based on the Laguerre expansion technique,”IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics and Biophotonics, 11(4):835-845, 2005. (PDF)

[25] Y. Sun, P. T. Vernier, M. Behrend, L. Marcu, M. A. Gundersen, Electrode microchamber for non-invasive perturbation of mammalian cells with nanosecond pulsed electric fields, IEEE NanoBioscience, 4(4):277-283, 2005. (PDF)

[24] T. K. Hsiai, M. Rouhinizadeh, R. E. Clempus; L. Marcu, B. Lassègue, J. Hwang, A. Sevanian. PhDOx-PAPC Induces Superoxide Production via NADPH Oxidase. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 39:1512-1522, 2005. (PDF)

[23] L. Marcu, J. A. Jo, Q. Fang, and T. Papaioannou.  “Applications of Time-Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy to Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease and Brain Tumors Diagnosis”, CLEO/QELS,  Baltimore, May 22-27, Vol. 1:CFJ3-J5. (PDF)

[22] L. Marcu, J. A. Jo, Q. Fang, T. Papaioannou, A. Dorafshar, T. Reil, J.H. Qiao, D. Baker, M. C. Fishbein, J. A. Freischlag. In-Vivo Detection of Macrophages in a Rabbit Atherosclerotic Model by Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy. Atherosclerosis, Vol. 181(2): 295-303, 2005. (PDF)

[21] O. V. Ivanova, L. Marcu, M. C. K. Khoo, Nonparametric recognition of fluorescent system for tissue characterization: Simultaneous deconvolution in wavelength and time dimensions. Annals of Biomedical Engineering. 33(4): 529-542, 2005. (PDF)



[20] K. C. Liao, F. J. Richmond, T. Hogen-Esch, L. Marcu, G. E. Loeb “Sencil Project: Development of a Percutaneous Optical Biosensor.” The 26th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, San Francisco, California. September 2004. (PDF)

[19] J. A. Jo, Q. Fang, T. Papaioannou, J. Qiao, M. C.  Fishbein, A. Dorafshar, T. Reil, D. Baker, J. Freischlag, L. Marcu. “Novel Methods of Time-Resolved Fluorescence Data Analysis for In-Vivo Tissue Characterization: Application to Atherosclerosis.” 26th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, San Francisco, California. September 2004; Vol. 1: 1372-1375. (PDF)

[18] J. A. Jo, Q. Fang, T. Papaioannou, L. Marcu. “Novel Ultra-Fast Deconvolution Method for Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy Based on the Laguerre Expansion Technique.” 26th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, San Francisco, California. September 2004; Vol. 1: 1271-1274. (PDF)

[17] L. Marcu. “Fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging: Part II”, In Lasers and current optical techniques in biology, ESP Series Comprehensive Series in Photosciences, Donat-P. Häder, Giulio Jori Series eds. Vol. 4:291-325.

[16] P. T. Vernier, Y. Sun, L. Marcu, C. M. Craft, and M. A. Gundersen, “Nanosecond pulsed electric fields perturb membrane phospholipids in T lymphoblasts” FEBS Letters 572:103-108, 2004. (PDF)

[15] L. Marcu, J. A. Jo, P. V. Butte, W.H. Yong, B. K. Pikul, K. L. Black, R. C. Thompson, Fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy of glioblastoma multiforme, Photochemistry and Photobiology, 80(1): 98-103, 2004. (PDF)

[14] P. T. Vernier, Y. Sun, L. Marcu, C. M. Craft, and M. A. Gundersen. Nanoelectropulse-Induced Phosphatidylserine Translocation, Biophysical Journal, 86(6): 4040-4048, 2004. (PDF)

[13] T. Papaioannou, N. Preyer, Q. Fang, M. Carnohan, R. Ross, A. Brightwell, G. Cottone, L. Jones, L. Marcu, “Effect of fiber-optic probe design and probe-to-target distance on diffuse reflectance measurements of turbid media: an experimental and computational study at 337 nm” Applied Optics, Vol. 43(14): 2846-2860, 2004. (PDF)

[12] J. A. Jo, Q. Fang, T. Papaioannou, L. Marcu. “Fast model-free deconvolution of fluorescence decay for analysis of biological systems” Journal of Biomedical Optics, 9(4):743-752, 2004. (PDF)

[11] P. Ashjian, A. Elbarbary, P. Zuk, D. A. DeUgarte, P. Benhaim, M. H. Hedrick, L. Marcu. “Non-invasive in-situ evaluation of osteogenic differentiation by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy” Tissue Engineering, 10(3/4):411-420, 2004. (PDF)

[10] P. T. Vernier, M. Thu, L. Marcu, C. M. Craft, and M. A. Gundersen, “Nanosecond Electroperturbation-mammalian Cell Selectivity and Bacterial resistance” IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, 32:1620-1625, 2004. (PDF)

[9] Q. Fang, T. Papaioannou, J. Jo, R. Vaitha, K. Shastry, and L. Marcu, “Time-domain laser-induced fluorescence apparatus for clinical diagnostics,” Review of Scientific Instruments 75(1):151-162, 2004. (PDF)



[8] J. A. Jo, Q. Fang, T. Papaioannou, L. Marcu,  “Nonparametric Analysis Of Time-Resolved Fluorescence Data Based On The Laguerre Expansion Technique”.  25th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, Cancun, Mexico. IEEE-EMBC Proc, pp:1015-1018. (Link) (PDF)

[7] P. T. Vernier, Y. Sun, L. Marcu, S. Salemi, C. M. Craft, and M. A. Gundersen. “Intracellular Calcium Bursts Induced by Nanosecond Electric Pulses” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 310:286-295, 2003. (PDF)

[6] P. T. Vernier, A. Li, L. Marcu, C. M. Craft, and M. A. Gundersen, “Ultrashort pulsed electric fields induce membrane phospholipid translocation and caspase activation: differential sensitivities of Jurkat T lymphoblasts and rat glioma C6 cells” IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulators, 10:795-809, 2003. (PDF)

[5] M. Behrend, A. Kuthi, X. Gu, P. T. Vernier, L. Marcu, C. M. Craft, and M. A. Gundersen, “Pulse Generators for Pulsed Electric Field Exposure of Biological Cells and Tissues” IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulators, 10:820-825, 2003. (PDF)



[4] L. Marcu, M. Fishbein, J.M. Maarek, W.S. Grundfest, “Discrimination of Human Coronary Artery atherosclerotic Lipid-Rich lesions by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy”, Atherosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology.  21(7):1244-1250. (Link) (PDF)



[3] J. M. Maarek, L. Marcu, M. Fishbein, W. S. Grundfest, “Time-resolved fluorescence of aortic wall: use for improved identification of atherosclerotic lesions.”Lasers Surg Med. 27:241-254, 2000. (PDF)

[2] J. M. Maarek, L. Marcu, W. J. Snyder, W. S. Grundfest, “Time-resolved fluorescence spectra of arterial fluorescent compounds reconstruction with Laguerre expansion technique.”Photochem. Photobiol. 71:178-187, 2000. (PDF)



[1] L. Marcu, W. S. Grundfest, J. M. Maarek, “Photobleaching of arterial fluorescent compounds: characterization of elastin, collagen, and cholesterol time-resolved spectra during prolonged ultraviolet irradiation”, Photochem Photobiol 69:713-721, 1999. (PDF)

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